Publications and Presentations

ROLAND J. KUSHNER.  PUBLICATIONS, 1981 – 2019

ARTICLES IN REFEREED JOURNALS

Kushner, R.J. (2019), Building, Leading and Sustaining a Cultural Enterprise: Martin Guitar in 2019, The CASE Journal 15 (4), 306-336.

Kushner, R..J. (2018), Evaluating a Nonprofit Health Index as a Policy Tool, Nonprofit Policy Forum, 9(3)

Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2017, Fall), Creating a Policy Index for the Arts, Stanford Social Innovation Review 15(4) 48-53

Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2011), Measuring National-Level Cultural Capacity with the National Arts Index, International Journal of Arts Management 13 (3), 20-40

Kushner, R. J. (2011) Scale, Scope and Structure in the Community Chorus Industry, Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 41 (1), 38-54

Kushner, R. J. (2003)  Understanding the Links Between Performing Artists and Audiences Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 33(2), 114-126.

Brooks, Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner (2002) What Makes an Arts Capital? Quantifying a City’s Cultural Environment, International Journal of Arts Management 5(1).

Brooks, Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner (2001) Cultural Districts and Urban Development, International Journal of Arts Management 3 (2) 4-15.

Brooks, Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner (2000) The One-Man Band by the Quick Lunch Stand:  Modeling Audience Response to Street Performance.  Journal of Cultural Economics 24 (1) 65-77.

Kushner, R. J. (1999) Curriculum as Strategy: The Scope and Organization of Business Education in Liberal Arts Colleges. Journal of Higher Education 70 (4), 413-440.

Erickson, Scott G. & R. J. Kushner (1999) Public Event Networks: An Application of Marketing Theory to Sporting Events European Journal of Marketing 33(4)

Kushner, R. J. & P. P. Poole (1996) , Structure-Effectiveness Relationships in Nonprofit Arts Organizations Nonprofit Management & Leadership 7(2),

Kushner, R. J. (1997) Business Education in Liberal Arts Colleges: Contemporary Views and a Future Perspective, in Crocitto, M. P., ed. Proceedings of the Eastern Academy of Management. New Brunswick, NJ: Eastern Academy of Management

Kushner, R. J. & Arthur E. King. (1994) Performing Arts as a Club Good: Evidence from a Nonprofit Organization Journal of Cultural Economics 18(1).

Kushner, R. J. (1994) What is it? vs. What it is?: An Open Systems Approach to Organizational Effectiveness. In Mainero, L. A. & Palmer, D. D. Proceedings of the Eastern Academy of Management.  Albany, NY: Eastern Academy of Management.

BOOK REVIEWS

Kushner, R. J. (2020, in press) Book review of Parks, J. “Stronger Than Steel.  Forging a Rust Belt Renaissance,” Rocky Rapids Press, 2018 in Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society

Kushner, R. J. (2009) Book review of Barber, B, “Consumed. How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole, Norton 2008” in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 38(4), 730-732

Kushner, R. J. (2006) Book Review of: Rob Paton, 2003, Managing and Measuring Social Enterprises, in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35(1), 144 – 147.

Kushner, R. J. (2005), Book Review: Terry Nichols Clark: 2004,The City as an Entertainment Machine, Research in Urban Policy, Vol. 9, in Journal of Cultural Economics 29 (2)

Kushner, R. J. (1998) Book Review of Tschirhart, Mary. (1996) Artful Leadership. Managing Stakeholder Problems in Nonprofit Arts Organizations, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27(3)

 BOOK CHAPTERS

Sung, H., Kushner, R. J., & Hager, M. A. (in press). Exploring the dimensional structure of the arts in communities. In R. G. Phillips & M. A. Brennan (Eds.), Culture, community, and development (pp.103-115). London: Routledge.

Kushner, R. J. (2013) Cultural Enterprise Formation and Cultural Participation in America’s Counties in Rushton, Michael (ed.) Creative Communities: Art Works in Economic Development. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press

Kushner, R. J. (1996) Positive Rationales for Corporate Arts Support, in Martorella, Roseanne, ed. Art and Business. An International Perspective on Sponsorship.  Westport, CT: Praeger Press

COMMISSIONED PUBLIC DATA REPORTS:

From 2010 to 2016, I collaborated with Randy Cohen of Americans for the Arts to produce the “National Arts Index” reports.  There were six separate reports, covering different time periods:

  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2016) National Arts Index 2016. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 2002-2013 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts
  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2014) National Arts Index 2014. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 2001-2012 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts
  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2013) National Arts Index 2013. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 2000-2011 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts
  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2012) National Arts Index 2012. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 1999-2010 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts
  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2011) National Arts Index 2010. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 1998-2009 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts
  • Kushner, R. J. & Randy Cohen (2010) National Arts Index 2009. An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States, 1998-2008 Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts

All National Arts Index reports and data are in the National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research or in Open Access from the Muhlenberg College Library

Kushner, R. J. (2006-2008, 2010-2016) Choral Survey Report [annual summary of chorus music activity in the U.S.] Washington, DC: Chorus America (ten reports)

Deegan, Michele M. & R. J. Kushner (2012) Lehigh Valley Nonprofit Vital Statistics. Allentown, PA: Muhlenberg College

Kushner, R. J. & Arthur C. Brooks (2005) The Leadership of America’s Choruses.  A Study of Choral Conductors. Washington, DC: Chorus America

Kushner, R. J. (2005) OPERA America Annual Field Report Washington, DC: Opera America.

Kushner, R. J. & Debra Harrison (2004) OPERA America Annual Field Report Washington, DC: Opera America.

Kushner, R. J. & Arthur Brooks (2000) The Arts Economy in 20 Cities: Where Does Atlanta Stand? Atlanta, GA: Research Atlanta, Inc.

Brooks, Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner (2000) A Cultural District for Downtown Atlanta  Atlanta, GA: Research Atlanta, Inc.

Kushner, R. J. & Susan Y, McGorry  (1998) Vendor Location as An Influence on Purchaser Choice, Kalmbach Report No. 10. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University.

Kushner, R. J. (1996) Tourism in the Lehigh Valley: An Economic Perspective Kalmbach Report No. 6. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University

OP-EDS

“How Small Businesses Make the Lehigh Valley a Better Place to Live” The Morning Call, Allentown, PA March 19, 2016

How a business community profits from a healthy arts economy” MyNetwork Magazine #3, p. 38

“Proposed arts cuts ill-informed” The Morning Call (Allentown, PA) May 25, 2011, A-20

“Results mean more to nonprofits than salaries” The Morning Call (Allentown, PA) July 17, 2007, A-9

“WDIY fills the L.V.’s need for Lehigh Valley community public radio” The Morning Call (Allentown, PA) October 18, 2006, A-17 (op-ed)

Tsunami might have ripple effect on other charity. Op-Ed, The Morning Call, Allentown, PA, February 13, 2005, D-3.

Nations Of The Caucasus Suffer Poverty, Chaos In Post-Soviet Era.  The Morning Call, Allentown, PA, (July 16, 1998), A-16

Objective Outcomes. Nonprofits as Economic Systems. Nonprofit Times, Oct. 15, 2004, 21

’Free Help’. Calculating Your Volunteers’ Value. Nonprofit Times, (February 15, 2004) 17-19.

Storm Warnings Coming Out of Canada. Philadelphia Inquirer, October 25, 1995, A19,

BOOKS AND GUIDES

Kushner, R. J. (2009) Instructor’s Manual for Social Entrepreneurship. A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation by Arthur C. Brooks. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall (with Powerpoint slides for instructor use)

Kushner, R. J. & Thomas H. Pollak (2004). The Finances and Operations of Nonprofit Performing Arts Organizations in 2001 and 2002. Highlights and Executive Summary.Washington, DC: Institute

Kushner, R. J. & Edith Ritter (1983)  A Guide to Business Financing in Lehigh, Northampton and Berks Counties, Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Small Business Development Center.

McGregor, Arthur & Kushner, Roland, eds. (1981) Coast to Coast Fever, Ottawa, Canada: OFC Publications, 1981.  An anthology of Canadian songwriting

INVITED LECTURE PRESENTATIONS

Measuring the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the U.S. with the National Arts Index, presentation to Korea Arts Management Service 2015 Arts Industry Forum, Seoul, South Korea, December 2015

Nonprofit Struggle and Success in the 21st Century, lecture to the Institute for Jewish Christian Understanding, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (2014)

Survival and sustainability in the nonprofit arts, colloquium presentation to the Pave Program in Arts Entrepreneurship, Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts and School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ Oct, 2013

Stewardship of the Invisible Balance Sheet in Nonprofit Governance, lecture to the Department of Public Administration, Bush School of Public Service, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, Oct 2013

Cultural Enterprise Formation and Cultural Participation in America’s Counties, presentation to National Endowment for the Arts / Brookings Institution Symposium “The Arts, New Growth Theory, and Economic Development,” Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, May 2012.

Managerial Economics for the Arts course presented in the Graduate Program in Arts Administration and Public Policy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. (2006)

Effective Planning for Effective Cultural Organizations, professional development seminar, presented for Philadelphia Cultural Management Initiative, 2004 and 2005.

Organizational Effectiveness.  Models and Applications to Strategic Management Problems in Nonprofit Organizations, Presented to the Department of Public Administration, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, April 1999

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS  AND PRESENTATIONS

Towards a Constructive Epistemology of Nonprofit Management Education, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, San Diego, CA, November 2019 (scheduled)

Teaching an Artistic Programming and Curatorial Decision-Making  Process Using Constrained Optimization and Voter Preference Models, to the Association of Arts Administration Educators, Madison, WI, May, 2019

The Intersection of Governance Values and Governance Roles in Nonprofit Organization: The Case of the Arts, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Austin, TX, November 2018

Building and Leading a Cultural Enterprise: Martin Guitar and C. F. Martin IV in 2018 with Samuel M. Thompson, to the Eastern Academy of Management, Providence, RI, May 2018.

Capital Expansion Planning for Nonprofit Live Performing Arts presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action teaching section, Grand Rapids, MI, November 2017

An Impact Model for a Nonprofit Health Index presented to Independent Sector “Our Common Future” Conference, Detroit, MI, October 2017 and to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Grand Rapids, MI, November 2017

The Invisible Balance Sheet as an Organizational Capacity Model presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action teaching section, Washington, DC, November 2016

Birds Without End: Sell or Stay, teaching case presented to North American Case Research Association, Las Vegas, NV October 2016

Accountability after the crisis at the Milwaukee Public Museum, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action teaching section, Chicago, IL, November 2015

How we serve who we serve: Relating strategy and structure in association management, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Denver, CO, November 2014. Supported by funding from American Society of Association Executives via North Carolina State U. Institute for Nonprofit Research, Education and Engagement

Campus and Community as Mutually Reinforcing Cultural Spaces, presented to the Social Theory, Politics, and the Arts Conference, Ottawa, Canada, October 2014

Bytown, by and by: The Development of Cultural Capital in Ottawa, 1964-2014, panel organized at the Social Theory, Politics, and the Arts Conference, Ottawa, Canada, October 2014

Recalling the Management Roots of Arts Management. Perspectives for Theory and Pedagogy, presented to the Association of Arts Administration Educators, Montreal, QC, May 2014

Songs in the Key of M, presented to the Mid-Atlantic Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference, Philadelphia, PA, March, 2014, with Michael London

Nonprofit Board Members Engagement in Strategic Thinking: Framing, Envisioning, Performance, and Risk presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Hartford, CT, November 2013, with William J. Brown

Millennial Arts and Culture Nonprofit Industries: Growth and Sustainability in the 21st Century, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Hartford, CT, November 2013

Supporting Arts Administration Learning Outcomes with Local Arts Index Data Presented to Association of Arts Administration Educators, New Orleans, LA, March 2013

Competitive Forces and Competitive Positioning in Nonprofit Strategic Management, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN, November 2012, with William J. Brown

Nonprofit Enterprise Formation and Cultural Participation in America’s Counties, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN, November 2012,

Crowding-in and –out of private contributions to the arts. Local level analysis, 2000-2011 presented to the Social Theory, Politics and the Arts Conference, Seattle, WA, October 2012

Gold Seal or Golden Deadweight: Investigating the Relationship between NEA Funding and Nonprofit Arts Finances presented to the Association for Arts Administration Educators, Claremont, CA, June 2012

The Diverse Arts and Culture Ecology in Local Communities: Findings from the Local Arts Index Project presented to the Social Theory, Politics and the Arts Conference, Lexington, KY, October 2011, with Randy Cohen, Martin Cohen, and Ryan Lindsay

Using the National Arts Index as a Pedagogical Resource presented to Association of Arts Administration Educators, Boston, MA, 2011

No More Tears: Peeling and Slicing the Public Arts Support Onion by Broadening Understanding of Government Arts Funding, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Alexandria, VA, 2010, with Randy Cohen

Unexpected possibilities in the cultural data ecology, to the Social Theory, Politics and the Arts Conference, Arlington, VA, 2010

Stand Up and Be Counted, presented to the Association of American Cultures, Chicago, IL, 2010

Shadowing Action in the Introductory Management Course, presented to Mid-Atlantic Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference, Philadelphia and Lilly East Teaching Conference, College Park, MD, 2010

Measuring Local Arts Vitality: Lessons from Studies in Cities, Counties, States, and Regions presented to the Half-Century Summit Conference of Americans for the Arts, Baltimore, MD, 2010, with Ariel Fogel.

The Scale, Scope, and Structure of the Community Theatre Industry, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Philadelphia, 2008, with Michael P. Brown, Jr.

The Scale, Scope, and Structure of the Community Chorus Industry, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Philadelphia, 2008

The Scale, Scope, and Structure of the Community Radio Industry, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Philadelphia, 2008, with Geoffrey Chambers

Teaching Nonprofit Management as a Derived Discipline, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Philadelphia, 2008

Measuring Arts and Culture in the United States with the National Arts Index, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Atlanta, 2007, with Randy Cohen

Teaching Management as a Derived Discipline, presented to Academy of Management Paper Development Workshop, Philadelphia, 2007

The National Arts Index. Concepts and Progress, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Chicago, 2006, with Randy Cohen.

Choral Conductors as Nonprofit Workers, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Washington, 2005, with Arthur Brooks.

The Finances and Operations of Performing Arts Organizations in a Dynamic Period: Changes from 2001 to 2002, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Los Angeles, 2004, with Thomas H. Pollak

Evaluation for a Multiple-Program Social Service Organization: Developing a Systemic Plan for a Diversified Service Provider presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Los Angeles, 2004

Comparing the Finances and Operations of Professional Nonprofit Performing Arts Organizations Using National Service Organizations’ Survey Data, with Thomas H. Pollak, presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Denver, 2003

All Things Don’t Stay the Same: Environmental Scanning and Scenario Planning for Nonprofit Organizations presented to Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Montreal, Canada, 2002

Action Research Validation of an Inventory of Effectiveness Measures, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Miami, FL, 2001 and to the Conference, Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness and Performance, Kansas City, MO, 2002.

The Shape of Effectiveness: An Evolving Conceptual Model of Organizational Performance. Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Arlington, VA, 1999

Brooks, Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner Cultural Districts and Urban Development, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Arlington, VA, 1999

Never the Twain Shall Meet: Cross-cultural Evaluation of Organizational Performance, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Seattle, WA, 1998, with Thomas G. Baker

The Strategic Analytics of Nonprofit Arts Decision-Making, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Seattle, 1998.

Strategic Market and Power Orientations of Intermediaries in Performing Arts Markets, presented to the Cultural Industries Conference, New York University, 1997.

Contrasting Theory and Promise with Practice and Performance: Network Formation in Nonprofit Community Groups, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, New York, 1996.

Agents and Presenting Organizations as Links Between Artists and Audiences.  Presented to the Ninth Annual Conference on Cultural Economics, Boston, MA, 1996.

Towards a Theory of Nonprofit Strategy. Presented to the Association for Research into Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Cleveland, OH, 1995.

The White Collar Holler and the Workingman’s Ph.D.: Contemporary Songs on Management and Organization. Presented to the Mid-Atlantic Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference, Philadelphia, PA, 1995. In this presentation, I discussed how contemporary songs can be used effectively to teach about various important management education topics.

The Live Performing Arts in the Management Classroom. Presented to the Western Organization Management Teaching Conference, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, 1995.

Strategy, Structure, and Organizational Effectiveness in Nonprofit Arts Organizations. Presented to Association for Research in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Berkeley, CA, 1994, with Peter P. Poole.

SELECTED CONSULTING REPORTS

Program Evaluation Methods for the Community Service Society of New York, 2003.

The Finances and Operations of Performing Arts Organizations, Presented by Urban Institute to American Symphony Orchestra League, Association of Performing Arts Presenters, Dance/USA, Opera America, and Theatre Communications Group, 2003. with Tom Pollak.

Facilitators Guide For Assessing Organizational Effectiveness In National Societies. A Resource for Organizational Development Facilitators in the International Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement (2000) Washington, DC: American Red Cross International Services

Institutional Development Practices for the American Red Cross: A Methodology for Examining National Society Effectiveness (2000).  Report to the International Services Department, American Red Cross, Washington, DC, (1999)

Institutional Development Practices for the American Red Cross. Current Practice and Recommendations for the Future (1999). Report to the International Services Department, American Red Cross, Washington, DC., (1999)

Kushner, R. J., Thomas G. Baker & Karin Håkansson (1998) The Caucasus Capacity Building Project: A Work in Progress. Report to the American Red Cross, International Services Department (Washington, DC), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Geneva, Switzerland), U. S. State Department Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (Washington, DC)

City of Bethlehem Landfill. Options for Management or Divestiture Report to the City of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1997

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION

Strategy, Structure, and Organizational Effectiveness: A Study of Nonprofit Arts Organizations.  Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Business & Economics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (1994).

This dissertation reports on exploratory research into strategy, structure, and organizational effectiveness in nonprofit organizations.  The underlying thesis is that matches between strategy and structure contribute to organizational effectiveness. Strategy refers to decisions and processes associated with comprehensive relationships between organization and environment.  Structure refers to division of labor and the means adopted to coordinate labor.  Organizational effectiveness is modeled as a consequence of components — constituency satisfaction, resource acquisition, internal process, and goal attainment — which contribute directly and indirectly to overall effectiveness.  Strategy, structure, and effectiveness were studied in nonprofit organizations because financial and volunteer donations present nonprofits with a unique decision environment.  Arts organizations were chosen as data sites because they appear to compete simultaneously in markets for ticket sales and donations.
An inductive, exploratory grounded theory research method combined qualitative and quantitative analyses.  Data were collected from 19 nonprofit arts organizations in two Northeast states using executive interviews, observation of organization programs, and archival data.  The principal results of this study are:

  • Nonprofit strategy can be classified using the character of benefits provided to the public.  Arts Benefit, Community Benefit, and Private Benefit types were proposed.
  • The program margin ratio of earned income to program expenditure appears to indicate some aspects of strategic character.
  • Two dimensions of nonprofit structure are focus/diffusion of influence and whether key influencers are volunteers or employees.  Combining these two dichotomies leads to Grassroots (volunteer-diffused), Coordinating (employee-diffused), Directorial (employee- focused), and Institutional (volunteer-focused) structures.  Evolution between structure types is motivated by specialization, coordination, and assertion of control by volunteers.  Cases where organizations cannot decide how to configure influence display some disfunctions.
  • Effectiveness evaluation used subjective measures and within-sample ranking of financial strength to operationalize components of the effectiveness model.  Both measures appeared to discriminate between most and least successful organizations in the sample.
  • Strategy decisions appear to contribute to organizational survival and/or impact.  In two cases, structure has a significant impact on effectiveness, but this may be mediated by member commitment.  In most of the sample, there is no consistent relationship between structural configurations and performance

Last modified on May 20, 2019. All papers and publications in this page are © R. J. Kushner or other copyright owners.

 

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